Efectos de las características psicológicas del CEOS en los niveles de internacionalización empresarial: el caso de las Born Global en América Latina

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Autores

Gustavo García-Cediel https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3286-6832

Resumen

Este documento tiene como objetivo analizar la relación entre la orientación a la innovación, la proactividad y la tolerancia al riesgo, escogidas por la literatura como tres de las características psicológicas más importantes de los CEO, y la intensidad exportadora en un tipo especial de firmas como son las Born Global, las cuales se caracterizan por ser firmas pequeñas que, antes de los tres años, ya han iniciado operaciones internacionales y donde más del 25 % de sus ventas se dirigen a los mercados internacionales. Como marco teórico del documento se utiliza el enfoque Upper Echelons el cual considera que las características demográficas y psicológicas del equipo directivo terminan siendo determinantes en los resultados de las compañías. Como metodología de análisis estadístico se utilizó una Regresión Logística Binaria basada en los datos del Global Entrepreneurship Monitor utilizando datos de doce países de Latinoamérica en el año 2016. Como resultado se encuentra que la orientación a la innovación, estudiada desde la innovación de productos y de procesos, es determinante para lograr procesos exitosos de internacionalización. Por el contrario, la proactividad y la tolerancia al riesgo resultaron ser no determinantes. Ello implica que las compañías deben tomar medidas para promover decididamente los mecanismos de innovación e intra emprendimiento al interior de ellas y con ello facilitaran su inserción en los mercados internacionales

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